Wednesday 23. April 2014

Managing Marine Heritage and Protected Areas

On Friday, April 25, two master‘s theses will be presented in the Coastal and Marine Management master‘s program at the University Centre of the Westfjords. Information, titles and abstracts are below.

The presentations will be in room 1-2 at UW and everyone is welcome.

[mynd 2 v]
Evaluating the Role of Staff Engagement in Management Effectiveness Evaluations of Marine Protected Areas

Matija Drakulic


Advisor: Bradley W. Barr

Reader: Zoi I. Konstantinou

Considerable effort is directed to the development and implementation of marine protected area (MPA) management plans, but unless the management measures identified in that plan achieve their intended goals, they may have little value in conserving and protecting the MPA’s resources and qualities. To evaluate whether the MPA is or is not achieving its management plan goals, a management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) of marine protected areas must be conducted. Through the MEE, both positive and negative experiences can be used as opportunities for learning, and continuous improvement can be combined with anticipation of future threats and opportunities. Today, there is a growing awareness in the Mediterranean MPA community that evaluating MPA management effectiveness, and applying the results of those evaluations, can help provide more effective protection of the Mediterranean coastal and marine resources. To evaluate management effectiveness, many different approaches and methodologies are used around the world and they vary considerably in their scale, depth, duration, and data collection methods. Therefore, built on past methodologies and the experience of Mediterranean MPA managers, a new MEE methodology has been developed to address the need for a standardized approach to MEE specifically adapted to the Mediterranean context. This “Guide for Quick Evaluation of Management in Mediterranean MPAs” (QEM-Med Guide) has been implemented in eight Mediterranean MPAs. 
Analysis of application of QEM-Med Guide in the eight testing MPAs, have suggested that sharing the tool and its results is of outstanding importance, but sharing has not been achieved, which means that sharing is lacking and it must be improved. Therefore, this thesis specifically evaluates the role of staff engagement in the MEE process through an online follow-up survey that assessed and evaluated the experience of the people involved in the implementation and coordination of the QEM-Med Guide. The purpose of this study was to determine if greater active MPA staff engagement in MEE process can improve its implementation efficiency, facilitate and encourage the sharing of results, and create a culture of evaluation that promotes and values evaluation as an ongoing and essential part of implementation of a site management plan. The results of this research offer support to the idea that there should be greater active engagement of MPA staff in the MEE process and it should not be the work of a few people. Findings suggest that greater active MPA staff engagement in evaluation may lead to more efficient and effective implementation of such MPA evaluation processes. This also may be done through establishing and nurturing a culture of evaluation that expands opportunities for sharing information and ideas among the MPA staff regarding evaluating and improving management effectiveness. Additionally, greater staff engagement can start building social capital where MPA staff and stakeholders can then collectively foster an atmosphere conducive to greater collaboration and social learning. This can, in turn, increase resiliency and adaptability of marine protected area governance.



[mynd 1 v]
Marine and Underwater Cultural Heritage Management, Robben Island, Cape Town, South Africa:
Current State and Future Opportunities

Johanna Humphrey


Advisor: Bradley W. Barr

Reader: Michael Honeth

Defined as “all traces of human existence having a cultural, historical or archaeological character which have been partially or totally under water” by UNESCO, Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH) sites are often critical for the understanding of local and international history. Increasing interest in UCH calls for more effective solutions to management challenges. These sites can be seen as common asset, with great potential for knowledge sharing and public enjoyment. Robben Island, South Africa, and its surrounding waters appear of great potential for UCH preservation and research. Indeed, a minimum of 22 ships was lost around the Island during the period 1694-1976. The Island is worldwide known for being home to the high security prison during Apartheid era where Nelson Mandela spent 18 of his 27 years in prison. After the democratization of South Africa, the Island became a symbol, leading to its inscription in 1999 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS). The boundaries of the WHS included the former one nautical mile high security perimeter. But despite great potential, no mention of the cultural richness of the nautical zone can be found in the WHS designation. This research aims at clarifying the management status of the UCH while investigating opportunities for sustainable use. Data collection techniques included a literature and policy review, two semi structures interviews and a series of personal communications.
Finding showed a clear lack of incorporation of the UCH sites in the WHS management by Robben Island Museum (RIM). This has potentially led to deterioration of sites. Results also showed that the nautical area shows great potential for academic and tourism opportunities if challenges are addressed properly. The presence of these sites could be enhanced by the presence of a shipwreck trail, both on land and underwater. It is recommended that further attention be given to UCH sites by RIM. Further investigation into sustainable use of sites could reveal great input in the visitor experience combined with economical benefits. Improved relation between the management structure and the academic community would be welcomed for increased knowledge.